The bluetooth technology Abstract: Bluetooth Technology has been widely spreading every single day due to its availability in most of the electronic devices that are dominant nowadays. As any other technology, when widespread, will have a huge impact on the users and societies. In our study, we will search the impact of Bluetooth technology on the society. To get a realistic knowledge, a survey contains 10 questions on our topic was conducted. 100 people from Multimedia University and Limkokwing University were randomly chosen to participate in our survey. In addition, we relied on other sources such as the internet to collect information regarding our topic. From our study we have found that, the spreading of the Bluetooth technology has made life easier. As any other technology Bluetooth is, sometimes, used in a negative way and consequently has a negative influence. Acknowledgement: We would, firstly, like to thank our God who gave us the ability to accomplish this research. Secondly, many thanks to our EHM 3066, Engineers and society, subject lecturers who have been giving us a very good example of diligence and hard work. We send our gratitude to the participants who have participated in our questionnaire and given us from their precious time. Thanks to our families, friends and all our beloved people who has always given us the inspiration to be successful. We would finally thank our institution, the Faculty of Engineering (FOE), Multimedia University. 1.0 Introduction: Technology is considered to be the mount to climb up and attain the desired degree of development of a society. Man has been trying to facilitate his life through inventions and innovation. He first invented the â€œwheelâ€ and hasnt stopped so far. He lately invaded other planets. Telecommunication means, when computerized, played a very important role in spreading data which enabled scientists utilize the outcome of other scientistsresearches and that lead to more and more advancement in various fields of science and thus more technical devices. These devices didnt have the present shape. A lot of effort was exerted in the process of betterment with regard to performance, size and ease of use. This trial is to have a clear idea of how Bluetooth technology is affecting the society and our lives. 1.1 Overview of Bluetooth: In the striving for reduction of cables between computers and their connected units, Ericson Mobile Communication, in 1994, started the project named and named it Bluetooth. What is Bluetooth? Bluetooth is the name of a new technology that is now becoming widespread on a commercial basis. It promises to change significantly the way we use machines. Instead of using cables to transmit data between components of a PC,for example, the printer, the mouse and so on, a small and cheap radio chip to be plugged into these components will do the job. In short it is a Cable-replacement technology. The name was first used as a code name, but it stuck as time passed. It is named after the 10th Danish King, Herald Bluetooth, who had united Scandinavian Europe at a time it was severely divided. The founders of the Bluetooth technology found the name fitting as the Bluetooth technology is able to unite various industries like cellphone, computing and automotive markets. By Bluetooth technology one is able to simplify and combine several forms of wireless communication into a single, safe, power-saver, inexpensive, globally available radio frequency. 2.0 Bluetooth Mechanism: By embedding short-range transceivers that are inexpensive and tiny, into new electronic devices that are available nowadays, Bluetooth achieves its goal. In addition to three voice channels, Bluetooth can transfer data at data transferring speed up to 721 Kbps. As Bluetooth operates on radio band, at frequency of 2.45 GHz, that is unlicensed and globally available, people or â€œinternational travelersâ€ have no obstructions to use Bluetooth-enabled equipment. Moreover, Bluetooth units might be either externally adapted or built into electronics devices. E.g. in a personal computer, Bluetooth devices can be built into the motherboard as a PC card or on the other hand it can be used as an external Bluetooth adaptor through connecting it to a USB port. From the IEEE 802 standard, each Bluetooth device has its own 48-bit address. One feature is that connections are not only point to point, but they can also be multipoint connections. Usually, Bluetooth devices have a maximum range of connection up to 10 meters. However, by increasing the power, the range of connection might be extended to 100 meters. Bluetooth devices have a technique called frequency hopping. The main purpose of this technique is to protect the devices from radio interference. The mechanism of the technique is that Bluetooth devices change arbitrarily their frequency maximally 1600 times/s. when an error occurs, it will be immediately corrected by the three complimentary error correction schemes that any Bluetooth device has. Bluetooth devices are also provided with built in verification and encryption. When Bluetooth devices are in a â€œholdâ€ mode they consume approximately 30 micro Amperes from the battery of the electronic devices, such as cell phones and laptops, while they consume a range of 8 to 30 milliamps, less than one tenth of a watt, when they are in the active transmission mode. Moreover, only 0.3 mA are consumed by the radio chip, when in a standby mode, which means that its less than 3 % of the power that is used by a mobile phone. Also, the radio chip has an excellent power-saving feature that is as soon as the traffic volume lessens, the chip shifts automatically to a low-power mode. The above indicates that Bluetooth devices do not drain precious battery life. But beyond un-tethering devices by replacing the cables, Bluetooth devices can form a small and private ad hoc grouping of devices that are away from fixed network infrastructures by providing universal bridges. These bridges are to connect between a device, data networks and a peripheral interface. Furthermore, noisy radio frequency environment does not affect Bluetooth devices since they are designed to use a scheme called frequency hopping scheme and as well as a fast acknowledgment in order to make the link active and strong. After sending or receiving a packet, Bluetooth radio modules keep away from interference from other radio signals by jumping â€œhoppingâ€ to a new frequency. The Bluetooth radio uses shorter packets and jumps â€œhopsâ€ faster than other systems that are operating in the identical frequency band the thing that makes the Bluetooth radio more active and stronger than other systems. In addition, these fast hopping from a frequency to another and the short packages decrease the impact of domestic microwave ovens. Random noise may affect long-distance links. However, Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used to eliminate this impact. The encoding is, then ideal for an uncoordinated environment. At the bit level, Bluetooth security is guaranteed. Users can control the authentication by using a 128 bit key where radio signals are coded with 8 to 128 bits. The Bluetooth radio transmissions match the safety standards that are required by the countries where the technology is used with respect to the effects of radio transmissions on the human body. Bluetooth enabled devices emissions are less than those from industry-standard cordless phones. Also, Bluetooth module do not interfere, cause harm or even affect public or private telecommunications network. 2.1 Bluetooth Operation Modes: A feature of Bluetooth technology is that, once the Bluetooth devices come in range of each other, they will instantly form networks between each other.Another feature is that a number of devices can be connected together via Bluetooth in an ad hoc form. This feature is technically known as â€œPiconetâ€. In a piconet two or more devices can be connected together. A scatter net can be formed by multiple independent and non-synchronized piconets. Moreover, any device that is in a piconet can be a member of another piconet through a technique called time multiplexing. This techniques mechanism is to share the time suitably, thus a device can be a member of two or more piconets. As Bluetooth system supports multi-point connections as well as point to point connections, Bluetooth devices can be connected to a maximum of another 7 points, a point to multipoint connection. Every piconet has different frequency hopping sequence and hence a number of piconets may be created and linked together. All users that are sharing onepiconet are synchronized piconets hopping sequence. A Bluetooth device uses different hopping sequence when the device is connected to two or more piconets where a piconet starts with 2 connected devices, e.g a laptop and a mobile phone, and may grow to 8 connected devices. All Bluetooth devices have the same implementations. However, there are two types of unites in a piconet which are master units and slave units.A master unit is the unit which synchronizes the other devices by its clock and hopping sequence, where the other devices in the piconet are called slave units. In order to differentiate between units participating in the piconet, a 3-bit MAC address is used. When a unit does not have a MAC address, it is called a park unit. Park units are usually synchronized. Anyway, since parked units have an 8 bit address, a maximum of 256 parked units may be existed. 3.0 Bluetooths positive impact: 3.1 Huge Impact: What could the practical use of Bluetooth be on Society? Well, it is unlimited and depends on the way it is used. From a practical viewpoint, we can adapt all computerized Have a look at the list below! Printers Desktop and laptop computers Modems LAN access units http://www.sysopt.com/img/icons/war_ex.jpghttp://www.sysopt.com/img/icons/log_v450.jpgFax devices Phones and pagers Headsets Keyboards joysticks Notebook computers Practically, most of the digital devices can be a part of the system of Bluetooth. The dynamic of Bluetooths connectivity nature has the ability to replace USB (Universal Serial Bus). A Bluetooth-mouse can be in existence by using the improved plug-and-play-systems. The installation can take effect after the operating system is rebooted. 3.2 Bluetooths Applications 3.2.1Bluetooth and the Internet One of the most important advantages of Bluetooth is that it enables you to connect a device provided with internet connectivity to another device that is not. E.g. you might connect your hand phone that has a built-in Bluetooth to your laptop that has a Wi-Fi via Bluetooth connection. Then, via you laptops Wi-Fi, if exists, to a Wi-Fi router. Once your laptop is connected to the internet you can enable your hand phone to be connected to the internet as well. Moreover, this example goes correctly to most of the devices that have Bluetooth technology not only hand phones. Â Â Â Â Â Buying a device that has a Wi-Fi or buying another that has a Bluetooth technology is sometimes a confusing choice. One may think that by choosing Bluetooth he/she will not be able to connect to the internet and in this case choosing a Wi-Fi would be better. Â Â Â Â Â However, this is not such a really correct choice. Since, from the above example, you can modify your device to get connected to the internet via the Bluetooth technology purchasing a device that has a Bluetooth technology is a better choice as you can get two technologies in one ; internet connectivity (the function of Wi-Fi is achieved) and Bluetooth technology. 3.2.2 Some Other Applications: A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor, and while moving about in the room. A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. This would reduce eye-strain for persons who are long-sighted. Increasing the distance would also reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor. A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than one computer, in a dynamic, switchless manner. You can use your e-mail while your laptop lies in a briefcase; when your laptop receives an E-mail your mobile phone will immediately alert you and then, you can read the received e-mails in your mobile phones display. A businessman may enable his laptop to find a suitable printer once he enters a company.As soon as a suitable printer is found, data will be sent from the laptop to that printer via Bluetooth connection to print it out. Make a connection to printers and faxes without messy cables. Wireless connection to video projectors and digital cameras. An easy and elegance connection from cell phone to handsfree headset. A useful connection between Bluetooth interface to office private branch exchange (PBX). Smooth creating of dial up networks and automatic e-mail. Use mobile phones as office wireless phones. Use of personal computers or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) as hands-free phone. Automatic transferring and swapping of files, software, electronic business cards, calendars etc. Dancing couples at a dance hall could receive the music through their headsets and pick the dance of their choice Not to mention many more to come. 3.3The influence of the Bluetooth technology on Society: Thanks to the Bluetooth technology, a wireless LAN (Local Area Network) can be implemented without wires. This means that all the functions of a conventional fixed LAN are available in a WLAN including file sharing, peripheral sharing, Internet access and many more. 3.3.1 Mobility and low cost: Mobility and cost-saving installation are the main advantages of wireless networks in society. Most of the application scenarios of wireless are related to these two features. Mobility enables users to roam on while being connected to backbone networks. Many jobs require wandering workers. Portable computers are indispensable for people like inventory clerks, healthcare workers, police officers, and emergency-care specialists. Wireless networking provides important cost savings in the areas where cables cannot be easily installed, such as historical buildings and residential houses. In distant sites, branch offices and other situations where on-site networking expertise might not be available or fast networking is needed, computers equipped with wireless LANs can be pre-configured and shipped ready to use. 3.3.2 Circulation of Information: The wireless local area network business has been focused on offices since the industry began. But recently, home networking is seen to be a fast growing market. The personal computer has become a powerful platform for education, entertainment, information access and personal finance applications. At home, with the wide use of PCs and the Internet becoming the main way to access information, the role of the PCs has expanded and will continue to expand especially in the area of education. On the social side, this means that wireless networks is the easy way to access internet, find information and at the same time the users gain more knowledge through browsing the internet. 3.3.3Avoiding wire tangle Bluetooth is also one of the examples of using wireless range other than PDA and etc. The objective of Bluetooth technology is to replace cables and infrared links used to connect unrelated electronic devices with one universal short-range radio link. 3.4 Industrial boom Bluetooth applications reflect the mobile phone industry background of the inventors of some famous phone models for example Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Motorola and many more. There are many useful things that Bluetooth had given to our society. 3.5 Information Interchange In meetings and conferences, users can share information instantly with all participants without any wired connections. 3.6 Convenience: A user can also cordlessly run and control, for instance, a projector, or can connect his headset to his laptop or any wired connection to keep hands free for more important tasks while in the office, home or in the car. When laptop receives an email, the user will get an alert on mobile phone. Users can also browse all incoming emails and read those selected on the mobile phones display. Public Bluetooth wireless access points could enable free or charged access to information and services through laptop computers and PDAs. For example, imagine being able to browse the catalog of a public library on your handheld PC as soon as you enter the building. Or, imagine how helpful it would be to have instant PDA access to a building map and to customized real-time flight arrival and departure data as you make your way through a busy airport. Consider the convenience of having automatic, wireless access to a shared hotel printer as you make last-minute changes to a presentation in your hotel room. 3.7 Productive and Time saver: In a Bluetooth-enabled business world, the cellular phone could provide a link to everything beyond the 10-meter range limitation. Without even removing their Bluetooth-enabled cell phone from their briefcase or luggage, mobile professionals would be able to check voice mail, send a fax, receive email, verify inventory levels, and surf the Internet through their laptop computers. This would extend the concept of anytime, anywhere data access well beyond the current standard of cell phones and beepers. 3.8More Freedom: In considering the above scenarios, some may argue that the access of Wireless LAN would increase our freedoms and improve our professional lives because it allowing us to decide when and where we do our work. Wireless certainly has the potential to improve society, and our personal and professional lives in various ways. It gave us many advantages. 4.0 Negative Impact: The convenience of Bluetooth technology cannot be denied, but neither can the way they have negatively impacted daily living. Some of the effects can be dispensed with if boundaries are set. Here we will discuss some negative impact of Bluetooth. 4.1 Violation of Privacy: Mobile phones and PCs usually contain private stuff such as family pictures, bank account numbers, passwords and so on. Unfortunately, these devices are able to be hacked by Bluetooth. The hacker sends a user a file (lets say an image), when received, it will be opened as a usual image where actually it has a built in hacking software. Once the user opens the image, the hacker will be able to control the users device. 4.2 Sabotage: In the same way as downloading from the internet, transferring data via Bluetooth may harm your device if the data contain viruses. The strength of the viruses varies from one to another; some viruses are easy to be removed while some viruses totally damage the device once they reach the device. 4.3 Health Damage: While the topic remains controversial, there are people who believe the microwave radiation the phones emit can cause such problems as cancer and Alzheimers disease from prolonged use. 4.4 Use in inappropriate places: Using Bluetooth to transfer data in inappropriate places is considered to be harmful and such behavior expresses a negative attitude. E.g. Students in a classroom may get busy transferring data via Bluetooth using their hand phones while their lecturer is giving a lecture. 4.5 Sleazy Contents: A child or a teen-ager may innocently receive a file that contains sexual or immoral contents which are not suitable for their age. 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation: This project was done to assess the impact of Bluetooth technology on the society in the near future. We have investigated in how and why Bluetooth technology has widely spread and what impact that Bluetooth technology has been giving. In addition, we have explained in details the reasons of this impact. Mainly, the bases we had for this report are from a survey that we have done on 100 students and lecturers from the whole population of Multimedia University and Limkokwing University, Cyberjaya campuses. We used the collected data from this survey to explore the impact of Bluetooth technology on the society as we used MMU and Limkokwing Universities as small societies. We have heavily used the internet to collect information about Bluetooth technology and also to find out its impact on other societies. Why our survey was on only 100 people is that, making a survey on a bigger number of people would be expensive and time consuming. This report might be useful to social specialists to find out why some technologies have more interest on people, Bluetooth developers as they can decrease the negative impact of this technology, and to other people who are interested in the relationship between the technology and the society. Future researchers who are going to do a research on the same topic should keep this in mind, this research has been done based on a questionnaire that was made on people who have almost the same range of age as most of them are university students. Future researchers who have a wider research ranges can make their research on different age ranges. The results of the survey showed that 90 % of the people, who have answered the survey, have Bluetooth-enabled devices. The reason of this huge number of Bluetooth users is that, most of the new electronic devices that are available nowadays have Bluetooth technology. Moreover, about 25 % of the participants, who have Bluetooth-enabled devices, have faced negative impact of Bluetooth technology such as getting hacked or received viruses during data transfer. The reason is that most of them didnt know that Bluetooth may carry viruses or hacking software when data is transferred. Even though Bluetooth technology is widely spread so far, we think it will make life easier and more effective if it is spread on a wider range. For example, providing Bluetooth connection in universities laboratories would make data transferring between researchers, students or lecturers easier. However, care must be taken when using data transfers via Bluetooth since data may have viruses or hacking software. A good solution is to use anti-virus and anti-hacker software. Moreover, children and teenagers have to be watched when using Bluetooth-enabled devices. References: Book: Christian Gehrmann(2004), Bluetooth Security, Artech House Publishers Robert Morrow(2002), Bluetooth : Operation and Use, McGraw-Hill Professional (Telecommunications) Tom Siep (2000), An IEEE Guide: How to Find What You Need in the Bluetooth Spec, Institute of Electrical Online article: Pyramid Media Group, Inc Constantly Connected: Beyond WiFi and Bluetooth, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QXQ/is_2005_June_30/ai_n15341855 http://www.swedetrack.com/images/bluet00.htm Articles from magazines: Clive Akass (28 Jan, 2006), Bluetooth to hit 100Mbits/sec, Pc Magazine pp. 41-42 Michael Kwan (Thursday April 6, 2006), Jabra shows off Bluetooth goods at CTIA, Mobile Magazine pp. 23 Appendices: Appendix A: Survey on Bluetooth and its Impact on Society in the near future: Topic: Bluetooth and its impact on the society in the near future We are from EHM 3066 (Engineers and society) class. We are conducting a mini survey regarding the Bluetooth and its impact on society in the near future. Kindly spend a few minutes to answer this questionnaire. Your answers will be kept confidential. We would like to express our advanced gratitude for your co-operation. Instruction: Please TICK (v) in the appropriate boxes or write your responses in the given space: Survey on Bluetooth and its Impact on Society in the near future: We a group of students We would like to kindly invite you to participate in this survey to help us gain valuable information of the Blueooth and its impact on society in the near future. Please tick or write your responses in the given space. A- GENDER omale ofemale B- AGE o18-24 o25-30 o30-35 Other : ____ C- Occupation Do you have any Bluetooth-enabled device? oYes oNo If your answer is yes, what kind of device that you have is equipped with Bluetooth? oHand phone or Personal digital assistance (PDA) oLaptop oPersonal Computer o I dont have oOther : _________ how often do you use bluetooth? onever osometimes ooften oalways What kind of data/file that you use Bluetooth to transfer? oImage oMusic oDocument oSyncronisation Give your opinion on what impact of the Bluetooth on the societ is? Do you support the idea of installing Bluetooth devices in all computers in your company/university Computer Lab in order to increase the usage of Bluetooth? ?Yes ?No Have you known that Bluetooth-enabled devices are able to receive viruses and to get hacked? ?Yes ?No Have you ever got your Bluetooth-enabled device hacked by Bluetooth? ?Yes ?No Have you ever received unwanted data by unknown people ? ?Yes ?No How often do you get busy using Bluetooth to transfer data with another person in places such as classrooms or while you are driving? onever osometimes ooften oalways
Effective Study Skills Essay
Study is the devotion of time and attention to acquiring knowledge on an academic subject and the skills are the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate systematic and sustained effort. For some students the motivation and ability to study comes easily. However for those students for whom it does not it is necessary to develop effective study skills.
The aims is to provide the sole foundation of a sound education. These are necessary for the student to realise their full potential and acquire good grades.
Without these skills the student would not be aware of their ability to learn in the best way and to maximise this. She states:
1) It is essential to be rested (sleep affects performance) and to sit comfortably. A change of scenery stimulates the brain and helps creative thinking. 2) To be hydrated, drinking water helps the electrical connections of the brain. 3) To be unstressed. When stressed the brain only concentrates on â€˜escapeâ€™ not on tasks in hand. 4) To enjoy.Â 5) To learn to see something several times, little and often works better than trying to understand something in one sitting.
Cottrell points out that effective study skills are needed to facilitate time management and to meet deadlines. She states spare time must be used effectively to give relaxation time, to rest and enjoy oneself as well as independent study time. According to Cottrell it is essential to learn from oneâ€™s own mistakes and feedback which give a way to improve performance and above all else, not to give up. Time management is essential, not giving excessive time to favoured topics rather than those necessary.
It is essential to stay on target, stay motivated and not to let things get on top of you, to stay in control and maintain the correct direction of the studies. General tips are to identify the task in hand and work out exactly what is being asked for, setting clear goals and staying focused towards them. To develop the meaning of the task or how things work makes taking in material, reading and retaining the subject matter easier. To find links with the wider world such as the internet and journals helps. Working with others can also help by sharing ideas and getting mutual help. Finally to look for reasonable
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.